Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 232-242. The tendency to present a positive self-image to others, with the goal of increasing our social status, is known as self-presentation, and it is a basic and natural part of everyday life. Wiederhold, B. K. (2012). The problem of man cannot be solved scientifically without a clear statement of the relationship between man and society, as seen in the primary collectivity—the family, the play or instruction group, the production team and other types of formal or informal collectivity. Lv 7. Different self-presentation strategies may be used to create different emotions in other people, and the use of these strategies may be evolutionarily selected because they are successful (Toma, Hancock, & Ellison, 2008). This is one reason why good students who attend high schools in which the other students are only average may suddenly find their self-esteem threatened when they move on to colleges and universities in which they are no longer better than the other students (Marsh, Kong, & Hau, 2000). Each of the women was then told that before the experiment could continue the experimenter would have to prepare the equipment and that they would have to wait until he was finished. The power of upward social comparison can also be harnessed for social good. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds. The self is not created in isolation; we are not born with perceptions of ourselves as shy, interested in jazz, or charitable to others, for example. Answers to questions such as “What should I wear to the interview?” or “What kind of music should I have at my wedding?” are frequently determined at least in part by using the behavior of others as a basis of comparison. New York, NY: Kulwer Academic/Plenum. Define social comparison, and summarize how people use it to define their self-concepts and self-esteem. Tajfel, H. (1981). Social comparisons at work as related to a cooperative social climate and to individual differences in social comparison orientation. The person variable was self-monitoring, and each participant was classified as either high or low on self-monitoring on the basis of his or her responses to the self-monitoring scale. There is yet another standard for women and men. López-Romero, L., & Romero, E. (2011). Feinstein and colleagues (2013) investigated whether a tendency to make upward social comparisons on Facebook led to increased symptoms of depression over a three-week period. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32(4), 483-501. doi: 10.10370022-0167.32.4.483, Galinsky, A. D., Wang, C. S., Whitson, J. According to the Sociologist Charles Horton Cooley self is a looking-glass where you did notice that you imitate the person you idolize or the person you always hang with, for the Sociologist George Herbert Mead he stated that the self has two categories the “I’ and “me” where “I” is the doer and “me” is the receiver. (1996). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Edward Jones and Thane Pittman (1982) described five self-presentation strategies, each of which is expected to create a resulting emotion in the other person: No matter who is using it, self-presentation can easily be overdone, and when it is, it backfires. According to Gerry Lanuza, the self in the modern world societies is freely chosen because of the demand of the different societies where social contexts or issues are also belong. Thurman’s essay on the understanding of the “self” is a way for Thurman to reach society and help them understand that the “self” is not something that you just find but you must look for it by not worrying about oneself instead caring for others. the self as a product of society Posted on September 9, 2018 September 9, 2018 by chasabate • Reflect on the theories and concepts of Mead, Cooley, Baudrillard, and Lanuza and make a narrative essay on the three things you have discovered about your social self. Social comparison: The end of a theory and the emergence of a field. There are also some cultural differences in the extent to which people use self-presentation strategies in social contexts. For people who are high in self-monitoring, their self-esteem may be positively impacted when they perceive that their behavior matches the social demands of the situation, and negatively affected when they feel that it does not. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102(1), 3–21. Self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser, 1988) asserts that our self-esteem can be threatened when someone else outperforms us, particularly if that person is close to us and the performance domain is central to our self-concept. In M. R. Leary, J. P. Tangney, M. R. E. Leary, & J. P. E. Tangney (Eds. Female college students at the University of Minnesota volunteered to participate in one of his experiments for extra credit in their introductory psychology class. Jung, the Self is one of several archetypes. This theory leads to the interesting implication that these threats will often occur in the context of our family relationships, and they have been shown to be an integral part of both family functioning in general (Tesser, 1980) and marital relationships in particular (Beach et al., 1996). Changing organizational energy consumption behavior through comparative feedback. There are also some age-related trends in social comparison. Narcissism and the self-evaluation maintenance model: Effects of social comparison threats on relationship closeness. Differences in self-presentation have also been found in job interviews involving individuals from Ghana, Turkey, Norway, and Germany, with the former two groups showing higher impression management scores than the latter two (Bye et al., 2011). It is because man always lives in the company of his fellow beings. Not only that but as human beings it is instinctual to make an observation and write it down, but we tend to add our own personal view as to what we believe, or interpret something entirely … Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3), 472-482. The relation between individual and society is very close. For one, we are more likely to self-present in some situations than in others. The human being and the group. (1980) Self–esteem maintenance in family dynamics. Psychology Press. ___ I try to hide belonging to the group of University of Maryland students. MY REFLECTION ON THE SELF AS A PRODUCT OF SOCIETY Nowadays, self-identity is important for an individual to understand the self within him. Ickes, W., Holloway, R., Stinson, L. L., & Hoodenpyle, T. (2006). The self is expressed in a multitude of ways ranging from speeches to television as well as writing. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Self-concept and self-esteem are also heavily influenced by the process of social comparison (Buunk & Gibbons, 2007; Van Lange, 2008). The final influence we will explore can also be used strategically to elevate not only our own esteem, but the esteem we have in the eyes of others. For each of the following items, please indicate your response on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) by writing a number in the blank next to the question. The Product of Play: An Essay. However, one who has self-productive relationship with an object can have an attachment to an object. The individual-difference variable of self-monitoring relates to the ability and desire to self-present. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51(4), 593–607. For example, self-promoting by speaking out and acting assertively can be more effective for men than it is for women, in part because cross-culturally consistent stereotypes tend to depict assertiveness as more desirable in men than in women. Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Moretti, M. The Counseling Psychologist, 39(3), 438-462. doi:10.1177/0011000010378895. The term society […] There is strength in individual power, but with accumulated knowledge it allows humanity, as a whole, to thrive. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1087-1098. The third strategy is try to improve on the ability in question. You might not be surprised to hear that men and women use different approaches to self-presentation. Man and Society. The second option is to redefine how important the trait or skill really is to your self-concept. Although Schachter’s studies were conducted in relatively artificial lab settings, similar effects have been found in field studies in more naturally occurring settings. Online self-presentation doesn’t seem to be limited to Facebook usage. Analysis of the content and language used in Facebook postings has also revealed that they are sometimes used by individuals to self-promote. Later they were asked to rate their perceived enjoyableness of a piece of fiction with sexual content, and they typically responded in keeping with the responses they perceived the people they had visualized would have had. Separating fact from fiction: An examination of deceptive self-presentation in online dating profiles. Journal Of Adolescent Research, 25(1), 124-144. doi:10.1177/0743558409350498, Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Wang, S., & Stefanone, M. A. The first is distancing, where we redefine ourselves as less close to the person in question. ___ I identify with the group of University of Maryland students. Good or bad at playing video games? This is consistent with the idea that people share positive experiences with Facebook friends partly as a self-enhancement strategy. Other studies have also found associations between narcissistic traits and self-promotional activity on Facebook. ( Log Out /  The Self as a Product of Modern and Postmodern Societies. For example, we use social comparison to determine the accuracy and appropriateness of our thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1980, 39(1). They found that when the university’s football team had won its game on Saturday, students were likely to emphasize their university membership by wearing clothing, such as sweatshirts and hats with the symbols of the university on them. The use of positive emotion words was correlated with self-reported self-presentation concern in status updates. This effect was more pronounced when they sat in front of a mirror (remember the earlier discussion of self-awareness theory). In further studies, Schachter found that the research participants who were under stress did not want to wait with just any other people. So there must be intimate relationships between the school and the society. Social Science and Medicine, 68(3), 570-578. Sometimes, the influence of other people’s appraisals of ourselves on our self-concept may be so strong that we end up internalizing them. White, K., & Lehman, D. R. (2005). Nicholls, E., & Stukas, A. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(4), 379-396. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.10.4.379, Beer, A., Watson, D., & McDade-Montez, E. (2013). ___ I am annoyed to say that I am a member of the group of University of Maryland students. This 10-item scale is used to measure identification with students at the University of Maryland, but it could be modified to assess identification with any group. Maybe we develop our self-concept quite independently of others, and they then base their views of us on how we see ourselves. Describe some situations where people you know have used each of the self-presentation strategies that were listed in this section. One critical trigger for this has been that their parents are now often friends with them on Facebook, creating a need for young people to find a new space where they can build reputations that may not always be parent-friendly (Wiederhold, 2012). Taylor, L.M., Hume, I.R., and Welsh, N. (2010) Labelling and Self-esteem: The impact of using specific versus generic labels. Journal of Personality, 56(4), 685–707. Van Lange, P. A. M. (2008). This evidence is merely correlational, though, so we cannot be sure which way the influence is working. Moses, T.  (2009). The individuals are influenced by the mass media that made them acquired goods for social status than for the value and utility. Defining Social Psychology: History and Principles, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Cognition, The Social Self: The Role of the Social Situation, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about the Self, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Attitudes, Behavior, and Persuasion, Inferring Dispositions Using Causal Attribution, Individual Differences in Person Perception, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Person Perception, Person, Gender, and Cultural Differences in Conformity, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Influence, Close Relationships: Liking and Loving over the Long Term, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Liking and Loving, Understanding Altruism: Self and Other Concerns, How the Social Context Influences Helping, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Altruism, The Biological and Emotional Causes of Aggression, The Violence around Us: How the Social Situation Influences Aggression, Personal and Cultural Influences on Aggression, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Aggression, 10. The first is related to the self, and the second to society, as a political concept to be addressed in Sociology and Anthropology. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(8), 385-386. People who talk more and louder and those who initiate more social interactions are afforded higher status. Sirgy (1982) described the self concept as the person’s reflection of having an orientation or regard to … In general, older adults tend to make more downward comparisons than do younger adults, which is part of the reason why their self-esteem is typically higher (Helgeson & Mickelson, 2000). (R), ___ I criticize the group of University of Maryland students. One specific example of an action that affects someone’s self-concept would be social comparisons. Reputation management of adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior. Do religious coping styles moderate or mediate the external and internalized racism-distress links? Competition and Cooperation in Our Social Worlds, Conflict, Cooperation, Morality, and Fairness, How the Social Situation Creates Conflict: The Role of Social Dilemmas, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Cooperation and Competition. ___ I consider the group of University of Maryland students to be important. Self-presentation and interaction in blogs of adolescents and young emerging adults. A reason that many of us spend money on improving our physical appearance is the desire to look good to others so that they will like us. Salient private audiences and awareness of the self. In contrast to psychologists, who treat the self as an individual possession, sociologists generally view the self as a product of interpersonal relationship that is shaped by social and historical currents. If, for example, you have ever performed badly at a sport, the chances are that your esteem was more threatened when you compared yourselves to your teammates as opposed to the top professional athletes in that sport. (2007). Patient Education and Counseling, 47, 1–3. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 107–118. Cheng, C., & Chartrand, T. L. (2003). In contrast, low self-monitors may experience self-esteem boosts when they see themselves behaving consistently with their internal standards, and feel less self-worth when they feel they are not living up to them (Ickes, Holloway, Stinson, & Hoodenpyle, 2006). 84 self and society essay examples from professional writing service EliteEssayWriters.com. Rather, such beliefs are determined by our observations of and interactions with others. In this paper I will try to explain the puzzle of whether individuals are products of society or society is a product of individuals. Seen in this way, self-presentation is a transparent process, where we are trying to play the part required of us, and we trust that others are doing the same. Self-monitoring refers to the tendency to be both motivated and capable of regulating our behavior to meet the demands of social situations (Gangestad & Snyder, 2000). In society, we all are some facet. The research on upward social comparisons to similar others would suggest the latter, and this has been demonstrated empirically. The situational variable was the status of the confederate. Again, the power of the social situation—in this case, in determining our beliefs and attitudes—is apparent. Schlenker, B. R. (2003). Mehdizadeh (2010), for example, found that narcissistic personality scores were positively correlated with the amount of daily logins on Facebook and the duration of each login. Kulik, J. (2008). Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(1), 61-80. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00196.x, Bye, H., Sandal, G., van de Vijver, F. R., Sam, D., Çakar, N., & Franke, G. (2011). What are your most salient social identities? Low self-monitors were not sensitive to the status of the other. Distinct sources of public regard and self-esteem among first- and second-generation immigrants of color. Toward a general theory of strategic self presentation. Self-monitoring: Appraisal and reappraisal. The Self as a Product of Society Posted on September 9, 2018 September 9, 2018 by Czerena Flores -Reflect on the theories and concepts of Mead, Cooley, Baudrillard and Lanuza and make a narrative essay on the three things you have discovered about your social self. top-rated free essay Sense of Self. Self and Society Essay 461 Words | 2 Pages. As with the women’s study, the men’s self-evaluations matched those they perceived that the people they were asked to visualize would have made, particularly when they were more self-aware. Helgeson, V. S., & Mickelson, K. (2000). Self-promotion can also be pursued in our online social behaviors. This often seems to apply to micro-blogging sites like Twitter. Being aware of these strategies is not only useful for better understanding how to use them responsibly ourselves, it can also help us to understand that other people’s behaviors may often reflect their self-presentational concerns. ), Handbook of self and identity (pp. They arrived at the experimental room to find a scientist dressed in a white lab coat, standing in front of a large array of electrical machinery. The work of Mark Baldwin and colleagues has been particularly important in demonstrating that how we think we are being perceived by others really can affect how we see ourselves. Human nature and social order. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Through which looking glass? We attempt to convince others that we are good and worthy people by appearing attractive, strong, intelligent, and likable and by saying positive things to others (Jones & Pittman, 1982; Schlenker, 2003). ___ I am glad to belong to the group of University of Maryland students. Older adults also use more downward social comparisons to cope with feelings of regret than do younger adults, and these comparisons are often more effective for them (Bauer, Wrosch, & Jobin, 2008). In particular, we use occasions when our social groups are successful in meeting their goals to fuel our self-worth. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 60(1), 160-182. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2010.00432.x. We might feel that we have a great sense of humor, for example, because others have told us, and often laugh (apparently sincerely) at our jokes. Tesser, A. Boston, MA, US: Harvard Business School Press. A., Meuwly, N., & Davila, J. American Journal of Psychology, 121(1), 169–172. Social identity theory asserts that we draw part of our sense of identity and self-esteem from the social groups that we belong to (Hogg, 2003; Oakes, Haslam, & Turner, 1994; Tajfel, 1981). Over time, the people around us may come to accept the self-concept that we present to others (Yeung & Martin, 2003). The scale was originally reported by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992). 28–84). The tendency to present a positive self-image to others, with the goal of increasing our social status, is known as self-presentation, and it is a basic and natural part of everyday life. In our discussion of social comparisons, we have seen that who we compare ourselves to can affect how we feel about ourselves, for better or worse. The Self, according to Jung, is the end product of individuation, which is … Does brand management of corporate reputation translate into higher market value?. A. Health, coping and well-being: Perspectives from social comparison theory. What would your prediction be about how that person would feel? For instance, one of the reasons for the “glass ceiling” existing in some occupations (where women experience discrimination in reaching top positions in organizations) may be attributable to the more negative reactions that their assertive behaviors, necessary for career advancement, receive than those of their male colleagues  (Eagly & Carli, 2007). In these types of situation, those who self-label may come to experience internalized prejudice, which occurs when individuals turn prejudice directed toward them by others onto themselves. Self-presentation. Kay Deaux and her colleagues (Deaux, Reid, Mizrahi, & Ethier, 1995) asked U.S. college students to list the groups that they identified with. As you can see in Figure 3.14, “Self-Monitoring and Behavioral Mimicry,” Cheng and Chartrand found an interaction effect: the students who had been classified as high self-monitors were more likely to mimic the behavior of the confederate when she was described as being the leader than when she was described as being the worker, indicating that they were “tuned in” to the social situation and modified their behavior to appear more positively. Essentially, “society” is the regularities, customs and ground rules of antihuman behavior. Normally, our group memberships result in positive feelings, which occur because we perceive our own groups, and thus ourselves, in a positive light. In S. B. Manuck, R. Jennings, B. S. Rabin, & A. Baum (Eds. (R). The labeling bias occurs when we are labeled, and others’ views and expectations of us are affected by that labeling (Fox & Stinnett, 1996). As Professor Whitney has observed, it is as much an institution as a body of unwritten laws, and like these it has been called forth by the needs of developing society.” Robert Cialdini and his colleagues (Cialdini et al., 1976) studied the idea that we can sometimes enhance our self-esteem by basking in the reflected glory of our ingroups, which occurs when we use and advertise our ingroups’ positive achievements to boost our self-esteem. In the face of others’ behaviors, we may enhance our self-esteem by “basking in the reflected glory” of our ingroups or of other people we know. Social identity refers to the positive emotions that we experience as a member of an important social group. Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(2), 213-219. doi:10.1037/a0035435. People often project distinct reputations to different social audiences. ___ I see myself as belonging to the group of University of Maryland students. self through language and meaning, thus enabling the individual to take the role of other and (Stets and Burke p.2). Interestingly, narcissism was found to predict scores on a measure of exhibitionistic, self-promoting use of Facebook check-ins, which included items like “I check in so people know that I am with friends,” and “I expect friends to like or leave comments on my check-in status on Facebook.”. Buunk, B. P., Gibbons, F. X., & Buunk, A. P. (1997). In one experiment that showed the importance of self-monitoring, Cheng and Chartrand (2003) had college students interact individually with another student (actually an experimental confederate) whom they thought they would be working with on an upcoming task. 3, pp. Although everyone makes social comparisons, both upward and downward, there are some sources of differences in how often we do so and which type we tend to favor. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Self and Society Summary In Self and Society George Herbert Mead gives precedence to the effect society has over the mind and emphasizes the concept that the social leads to the development of mental states. Get more argumentative, persuasive self and society essay samples and other research papers after sing up Seeing our national flag outside a government office may remind of us our national identity, whereas walking past our local soccer stadium may remind us of our identification with our team. ), Handbook of social comparison (pp. Notice the clear parallels between these strategies that occur in response to threats to our self-esteem posed by the behavior of others, and those that are triggered by feelings of self-discrepancy, discussed earlier in this chapter. Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective. When people in our ingroups perform well, social identity theory suggests that we tend to make intergroup social comparisons, and by seeing our group as doing better than other groups, we come to feel better about ourselves. 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